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Maya 2012 Calendar History and Mayan Culture
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What gods did the Maya worship? The ancient Maya had a complex pantheon of deities whom they worshipped and offered human sacrifices. Rulers were believed to be descendants of the Mayan gods and their blood was the ideal sacrifice, either through personal bloodletting or the sacrifice of captives of royal blood.

The Popol Vuh states that several gods, including Hunahpu, Xbalanque, and the great god-king Quetzalcoatl, returned to the stars after their earth life ended. 2000 b.c. Peru's Inca civilization, like the Maya said the gods were from the star system "pleiades". Inca ruins have been found at 13,000 feet, with one stone weighing 20,000 tons.

Legend tells of spaceships that came from the stars. Inca ornaments of "platinium" were found. Text reveals the inca's knew the earth was round centuries before it was known to the Western world.

As with all alledged Myths about Gods and Goddesses, Mayan Myths discuss connections with beings from other cosmic realms who came to Earth to seed the planet.

Within their culture they have legends of numerous visiting Gods that would come and go in flying fire balls from outer space or beneath the sea . In the last couple thousand years the Annuk Demi-God known as Quetzalcoatl, a tall white skinned, blonde hair, blue eyed humanoid with a beard, was the last of the Gods to leave the Western Hemisphere. Like Jesus, Mohammad, and all the other demi-gods, he taught principles of peace and kindness to this part of the world. The descriptions are almost identical to the drawings and descriptions of the being known as Ea or Enki in the ancient Sumerian teachings.

Who were the Maya and what gods did they worship? The life of the Maya revolved around the concept of time. Priests were consulted on civil, agricultural and religious matters, and their advice would be derived from readings of the sacred calendars. Time was of such importance that children were even named after the date on which they were born.

Maya math uses only three symbols - a shell-shaped glyph for zero, a dot for one and a bar for five to represent units from zero to 19. For instance, the number 13 was represented as three dots and two bars.

Zero was an advanced concept in those days, something that the Romans were not aware of. Yet the Maya were comfortable enough with it to use a shell as its symbol, a tangible object representing an abstract concept. The Maya also used metrical calculation and place numeration, which were very clever for a culture that didn't use the wheel!

Although they had many calendars, they marked the passage of time with three cycles that ran in parallel.

The first is the scared calendar known as the Tzolkin (named after the planet of the Gods). It combines the numbers from 1 through 13 with a sequence of 20 day-names. It works in a similar manner to our named days of the week, and their date within each month. So you might have 5-Chikchan (like our Sunday the 5th) followed by 6-Kimi (as we would have Monday the 6th). After 260 days the same number/name combination will re-occur, and the calendar starts anew.

Their use of the vigesimal (base 20) numbering system probably relates to fingers and toes, whereas the 13 nicely fits the growth phase of the moon which is not visible when new and appears full for two days on end, thus appearing to have a 13 day growth cycle. Alternatively, the length of the Tzolkin may be related to the human gestation period of nine months (273 days). It has been suggested that 260 days is the time between a woman suspecting her pregnancy (she does not menstruate) and when she gives birth.

The second is the agricultural calendar known as the Haab, or vague year. It consists of 18 months, each of 20 days. An addition of a five-day month (a period of apprehension and bad luck named Uayeb) gives us 365 days, an approximation of a year. This calendar's primary purpose was to keep track of the seasons, for seasonal and solar events would occur on roughly the same day of each year. The Maya were aware of the annual quarter day discrepancy, but it is not known if they ever did anything about it.

Most accurate calendar ever developed These two independently running calendars each begin again every 260 and 360+5 days. However, every 52 years they coincide:

The Tzolkin and the Haab ran concurrently, like intermeshed cog-wheels, and to return to any given date, 52 years, or 18,980 days, would have to elapse (because both 365 x 52 and 260 x 73 = 18,980). In other words, the Tzolkin would make 73 revolutions and the Haab 52, so that every 52 calendar years of 365 days one would return to the same date. A complete date in this 52-year cycle might be, for example, 2 1k 0 Pop (2 1k being the position of the day in the Tzolkin, 0 Pop the position in the Haab). Fifty-two years would pass before another 2 1k 0 Pop date returned.

Our modern Western calendar was first introduced in Europe in 1582. It was based upon the Gregorian calendar, which calculated the Earth's orbit to take 365.25 days. This was 0.0003 of a day per year too much, but still exceptionally accurate for scientists living over 400 years ago.

The Mayan calendars were derived from those of their predecessors, the Olmec, whose culture dates back at least 3,000 years. Without the instruments of 16th century Europe, these Central American locals managed to calculate a solar year of 365.2420 days, just 0.0002 of a day short. More accurate than the Europeans, and much earlier.

The Long Count

A Mayan date utilizes three calendars. The third calendar, known as the "long count", is a continuous record of days that starts over every 5000 years or so. The current Long Count began in 3114 BC. And it will end very soon.

A typical Mayan date looks like this:, 3 Cimi 4 Zotz
4 Zotz is the Haab date.
3 Cimi is the Tzolkin date. is the Long Count date.
The basic unit is the kin (day), which is the last component of the Long Count. Going from right to left the remaining components are:

unial........1 unial = 20 kin = 20 days
tun..........1 tun = 18 unial = 360 days = approx. 1 year
katun.......1 katun = 20 tun = 7,200 days = approx. 20 years
baktun.....1 baktun = 20 katun = 144,000 days = approx. 394 years
The kin, tun, and katun are numbered from 0 to 19.
The unial are numbered from 0 to 17.
The baktun are numbered from 1 to 13.
maya codice script The Long Count is a great cycle of 13 baktuns (roughly 5,126 years), where the use of 13 may again represent the growth of the moon from new to full. The current cycle began on 4 Ahau 8 Cumku which correlates to Aug. 13, 3114 BC.

In Mayan mythology each Long Count cycle is a world age in which the gods attempt to create pious and subservient creatures.

top | Our Mayan 2012 Countdown Clock

The First Age began with the creation of the Earth, and it had upon it vegetation and living beings. Unfortunately, because they lacked speech, the birds and animals were unable to pay homage to the gods and were destroyed. In the Second and Third Ages the gods created humans of mud and then wood, but these also failed to please and were wiped out. We are currently in the Fourth and Final Age, the age of the modern, fully functional human. Is it possible that these Ages referred to evolutionary change? If they did, then what might occur when the current age finishes on December 21, 2012?

Archeologists - claim that the Maya began counting time as of August 31, 3114 B.C. This is called the zero year and is likened to January 1, AD. All dates in the Long Count begin there, so the date of the beginning of this time cycle is written 13-0-0-0-0. That means 13 cycles of 400 years will have passed before the next cycle begins, which is December 27, 2012. The new cycle will begin as 1-0-0-0-0.

A day was called a "kin", and still is today. A 20 day month was a "uinal", one solar year was a "tun", 20 tuns a "katun", and 20 katuns were a "baktun", 13 of which take us back to the August 13, 3114 B.C. date.

Another notable date is 9-9-2-4-8 or July 29, 615 AD when the great King of Palenque, Lord Pakal ascended to the throne.

maya ruins These dates are carved in stone throughout the Mayan territory, and the numbers can be seen by anyone. Using a vestigial system (they counted all the fingers and toes) and only three characters (we use ten) the Maya could string together very large numbers, these were read from the bottom up. So Pakal ascended on 9-9-2-4-8, that would read:

9 baktuns - 3600 years
9 katuns - 180 years
2 tuns - 730 days
4 uinals - 80 days
8 kin - 8 days

These numbers, if we begin at August 13, 3114 BC, will give us a date in the 7th century that corresponds to the date Pakal took the throne in Palenque.

January 1, 2000 would be written 12-19-6-1-0 in the Long Count.

For the Mayas this planet is an indicator of the Pleiades Cycle since the Great Calendar of the Pleiades, whose cycle is 26,000 years, has a very close relationship with NIBIRU - TZOLTZE EK'. This planet enters our terrestrial orbit every 4,500 years, marking in this way the beginning and end of a fourth of the Pleiades Cycle. (Note: The Great Calendar cycle ends December 21, 2012.)

I think it's time for all human beings to familiarize themselves with the Mayan knowledge and also to have it very present in their lives. The Mayas of Tradition already knew about this planet before and had registered the cycles of the planet TZOLTZE EK' in their astronomical science.

2012 A Space Case Race Odyssey

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